Fact Sheet References

[1] Smoking-attributable mortality calculated using SAMMEC methodology. Data source: Philadelphia Department of Public Health, Vital Statistics Report, 2013. Firearm homicide data and Drug Overdose death data from the Philadelphia Medical Examiner’s Office.

[1] CDC. Tobacco-Related Mortality Fact Sheet. December 1, 2016. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/health_effects/tobacco_related_mortality/.

[1] Public Health Management Corporation Community Health Data Base’s (2014/2015) Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Survey

[1] Assuming Philadelphia’s costs are proportional to national costs.  Xu X et al.  Annual healthcare spending attributable to cigarette smoking: an update.  Am J Prev Med 2014;48:326-33.

[1] CDC. 2015 High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Available at: https://nccd.cdc.gov/youthonline/App/Results.aspx?LID=PH. Accessed on April 07, 2017.

[1] CDC. Youth and Tobacco Use Fact Sheet. April 14, 2016.Available at https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/youth_data/tobacco_use/. Accessed on April 07, 2017.

[1] Flavored Tobacco Product Use Among Middle and High School Students — the United States, 2014

MMWR October 2, 2015 / 64(38);1066-1070. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6438a2.htm.

[1] Philadelphia Department of Public Health. Use of Tobacco by Youth in Philadelphia. CHART 2017;2(5):1-4.

[1] FDA. Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee’s Report and Recommendations on the Impact of the Use of Menthol in Cigarettes on the Public Health. Available at http://www.fda.gov/AdvisoryCommittees/CommitteesMeetingMaterials/TobaccoProductsScientificAdvisoryCommittee/ucm247605.htm.

[1] Nonnemaker J, Hersey J, Homsi G, Busey A, Allen J, Vallone D. Initiation with menthol cigarettes and youth smoking uptake. Addiction 2013; 108(1): 171-178.

[1] Hillier A, Chilton M, Zhao Q, Szymkowiak D, Coffman R, Mallya G. Concentration of Tobacco Advertisements at SNAP and WIC Stores, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2012. Prev Chronic Dis 2015;12:140133.

[1] Rising J, Alexander L. Marketing of Menthol Cigarettes and Consumer Perceptions. Tob Induc Dis. 2011; 9(Suppl 1): S2.

[1] Ibid.

[1] Flavored Tobacco Product Use Among Middle and High School Students — United States, 2014

MMWR October 2, 2015 / 64(38);1066-1070

[1] Villanti AC et al. Changes in the Prevalence and Correlates of menthol cigarette use in the USA, 2004-2014. Tob Control 2016;25:ii14–ii20

[1] http://www.tobaccofreekids.org/press_releases/post/2017_06_27_sanfrancisco

[1] Food and Drug Adminsitration, Preliminary Scientific Evaluation of Public Health Effects of Menthol versus Nonmenthol Cigarettes 2013. Available at http://www.fda.gov/downloads/ScienceResearch/SpecialTopics/PeerReviewofScientificInformationandAs sessments/UCM361598.pdf

[1] Tavernise S., NY Times 9/13/2016. Black Health Experts Renew Fight Against Menthol Cigarettes. Available at