Smoking-attributable mortality calculated using SAMMEC methodology. Data source: Philadelphia Department of Public Health, Vital Statistics Report, 2013. Firearm homicide data and Drug Overdose death data from the Philadelphia Medical Examiner’s Office.
 CDC. Tobacco-Related Mortality Fact Sheet. December 1, 2016. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/health_effects/tobacco_related_mortality/.
 Public Health Management Corporation Community Health Data Base’s (2014/2015) Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Survey
 Assuming Philadelphia’s costs are proportional to national costs. Xu X et al. Annual healthcare spending attributable to cigarette smoking: an update. Am J Prev Med 2014;48:326-33.
 CDC. 2015 High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Available at: https://nccd.cdc.gov/youthonline/App/Results.aspx?LID=PH. Accessed on April 07, 2017.
 CDC. Youth and Tobacco Use Fact Sheet. April 14, 2016.Available at https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/youth_data/tobacco_use/. Accessed on April 07, 2017.
 Flavored Tobacco Product Use Among Middle and High School Students — the United States, 2014
MMWR October 2, 2015 / 64(38);1066-1070. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6438a2.htm.
 Philadelphia Department of Public Health. Use of Tobacco by Youth in Philadelphia. CHART 2017;2(5):1-4.
 FDA. Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee’s Report and Recommendations on the Impact of the Use of Menthol in Cigarettes on the Public Health. Available at http://www.fda.gov/AdvisoryCommittees/CommitteesMeetingMaterials/TobaccoProductsScientificAdvisoryCommittee/ucm247605.htm.
 Nonnemaker J, Hersey J, Homsi G, Busey A, Allen J, Vallone D. Initiation with menthol cigarettes and youth smoking uptake. Addiction 2013; 108(1): 171-178.
 Hillier A, Chilton M, Zhao Q, Szymkowiak D, Coffman R, Mallya G. Concentration of Tobacco Advertisements at SNAP and WIC Stores, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2012. Prev Chronic Dis 2015;12:140133.
 Rising J, Alexander L. Marketing of Menthol Cigarettes and Consumer Perceptions. Tob Induc Dis. 2011; 9(Suppl 1): S2.
 Flavored Tobacco Product Use Among Middle and High School Students — United States, 2014
MMWR October 2, 2015 / 64(38);1066-1070
 Villanti AC et al. Changes in the Prevalence and Correlates of menthol cigarette use in the USA, 2004-2014. Tob Control 2016;25:ii14–ii20
 Food and Drug Adminsitration, Preliminary Scientific Evaluation of Public Health Effects of Menthol versus Nonmenthol Cigarettes 2013. Available at http://www.fda.gov/downloads/ScienceResearch/SpecialTopics/PeerReviewofScientificInformationandAs sessments/UCM361598.pdf
 Tavernise S., NY Times 9/13/2016. Black Health Experts Renew Fight Against Menthol Cigarettes. Available at